Two children and eight security forces were among the casualties, said Ataullah Khogyani, spokesman for the Nangarhar provincial government.
The Taliban claimed responsibility for detonating the bomb near the National Directorate of Security (NDS) compound in Ghazni city during Sunday morning's rush hour.
The bloodshed comes as the US pushes for a peace settlement with the Taliban, and ahead of a new round of talks expected to take place in Qatar later this month.
The Taliban ambushed a police convoy in western Afghanistan, killing seven security forces, an official said on Saturday.
Hundreds of Taliban fighters stormed a district in Afghanistan’s western Badghis province, with both Afghan government forces and the insurgent group suffering dozens of casualties, provincial officials said.
The statement re-affirms the UAE's categorical rejection of all forms of extremism, calling upon the international community to close ranks and uproot the scourge of terrorism in order to ensure international peace and security.
Taliban fighters have killed 12 security forces in the last 48 hours in clashes in Afghanistan's western province of Badghis, the defence ministry said on Monday.
An Afghan official says an explosion at a coal mine in the northern province of Samangan has killed at least seven miners. Hashim Bayan, a spokesman for the provincial police
American actor and United Nations special envoy Angelina Jolie has called for women to have a central role in ongoing Afghanistan peace talks, warning their exclusion would hamper any chance of lasting stability.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) said on Thursday it had suspended work in Afghanistan after the Taliban announced a “ban” against the humanitarian group and the World Health Organisation (WHO). According to a Taliban statement, the ICRC had not “acted upon its agreements” with the Taliban.