A male reticulated giraffe towering over scrub at Ol-Pejeta. AFP
Every morning, at the far perimeter of the wildlife reserve capped by Mount Kenya, a khaki-clad ranger meticulously sweeps the earth of animal footprints, covering their tracks from any poachers.
It's an antiquated approach to outsmarting would-be hunters, but this ranger is not alone. High on a mast nearby, a new camera scans around the clock for intrusions, relaying real-time images to armed guards at park headquarters.
It is among the latest technology deployed to combat poaching at Ol Pejeta, a private conservancy on Kenya's Laikipia plateau that shelters the only two northern white rhinos left on earth, among other endangered giants.
Last month, Ol Pejeta launched what it calls the world's first wildlife tech lab — a research hub at the heart of the sanctuary dedicated to bringing conservation management into the information age.
"We are very much in our infancy when it comes to this kind of stuff. It is pretty cutting-edge from a conservation perspective," Richard Vigne, the chief executive of Ol Pejeta, told AFP.
Among other projects, researchers are working towards a chip small enough to fit in a rhino horn, but capable of live transmission of the animals' exact location and core vitals.
"No one else in the conservation space in Kenya is testing this... For me, that was very exciting," said Damian Otieno, a Kenyan IT engineer who left an office job for a career in conservation tech, and now leads the Ol Pejeta initiative.
Bank without doors
Until this year at Ol Pejeta, the only way to know if a poacher was lurking near a wildlife corridor was to spot him yourself, or trawl through pictures captured by a motion-triggered camera trap.
"If I had a bugbear about the world of conservation, it's that it tends to be fairly slow on the uptake when it comes to new technologies... that has to change," said Vigne.
Now, three cameras with artificial intelligence capable of telling man from beast send alerts in real time if disturbances are detected.
This is critical for the 250 elite rangers tasked with safeguarding 360 square kilometres (90,000 acres) of bushland grazed by more than 150 rhinos.
The last successful poaching at Ol Pejeta was in October 2017, when a northern black rhino was slaughtered.
Rhino horn is highly valued in parts of Asia for its believed medicinal qualities and still fetches higher prices than gold, said Samuel Mutisya, head of conservation at Ol Pejeta.
Damian Otieno, an IT engineer, demonstrates on his computer how technology is applied to animal tracking.
"In principal, we are a bank without doors," he said.
Ten steps ahead
Ol Pejeta however is connected to a stable network that requires little power to cover the entire park. Data on everything from security breaches to fence damage, lion sightings and ranger locations is fed into a digital dashboard, accessible at a finger's touch.
A pair of flashing handcuffs on the screen indicates an arrest. A "poacher contact" alert would trigger the immediate deployment of armed rangers.
Other innovations have been tested elsewhere in Africa to combat wildlife crime, but cost remains a major hurdle to widespread uptake.
Drones, thermal-imaging cameras and virtual-radar fences were among technologies trialled to mixed success in several African nations by WWF through a Google-backed programme that ended in 2017.
"It's all very well having one or two parks in Africa with lots of tech, but if that is really costly to the point that nobody else can do it, then it's a waste of time," he said.
Soon, Ol Pejeta hopes to adapt this to rhino tracking, providing intelligence about where and when to deploy rangers, and trimming their security bill.
"We want to stay one step ahead of the poachers. Ten steps ahead, even better," said Otieno.
A walking safari through Kenya’s Maasai Mara reserve, where you get up close with big cats and elephants, is a lesson in adventure.
From cruising along the Norwegian fjords to treading a wildlife trail in Kenya, we bring you the perfect holiday guide.
Life has changed little over the centuries in this part of Kenya's north coast, however residents fear their pristine environment will soon be blighted by a coal-fired power station spewing noxious gases.
Consuming potato puree during prolonged exercise works just as well as a commercial carbohydrate gel in sustaining blood glucose levels and boosting performance in trained athletes, a new study suggests.
It's part of a growing Vegan Mexican food industry in the U.S. that has seen Latinos take control of the kitchen and plant-based Mexican cuisine increasingly plant roots in areas with large Latino communities.
In Christiansburg, the small Virginia town chosen as Wing's test location, the 22,000 residents can order products normally shipped by FedEx, medicine from Walgreens and a selection of candy from a local business — all of which will arrive via drone.
Hotels on Thailand's most popular holiday island have been forced to slash prices with rooms left vacant and beaches sparse as tourist chiefs struggle with a plunge in Chinese visitors caused by the US trade war and a stronger baht.