King Salman told Arab monarchs, presidents and prime ministers at the meeting that his country "absolutely rejects" any measures affecting Syria's sovereignty over the Golan Heights.
Arab officials said the summit would be dominated by the Golan Heights and Palestinian demands for an independent state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, areas also occupied by Israel in the 1967 war.
The Palestinians on Monday restated their refusal to accept tax revenues collected on their behalf by Israel so long as the Jewish state deducts millions of dollars over a dispute about prisoners.
Israeli planes targeted a military position near the province of Hama in Syria on Saturday, but Syrian air defences intercepted and downed some of the rockets, Syrian state television said on Saturday.
Syria's state news agency SANA quoted an unnamed military official as saying the airstrike near the town of Masyaf, in Hama province, hit a military academy widely known as the Accounting School.
'We confirm that Arab countries will support the Palestinian state's budget... (to) resist the political and financial pressure it faces'
A hospitalised Palestinian teen said on Monday he was shot in his thighs by Israeli soldiers while he was handcuffed and blindfolded — the latest in what a leading rights group portrayed as a series of unjustified shootings of Palestinians by Israeli soldiers.
US President Donald Trump's son-in-law Jared Kushner said on Tuesday that he would present his long-awaited Middle East peace proposal around June and that it would include a "robust business plan" for the Palestinians.
A Palestinian was shot dead by Israelis on Wednesday, the Israeli military and a witness said.