People board a truck as they leave Khartoum, Sudan. File/AP
The army has launched air strikes and used heavy artillery since Monday to try to take a bridge across the Nile used by the rival Rapid Support Forces (RSF) to bring reinforcements and weapons from Omdurman to the other two cities that make up the wider capital, Bahri and Khartoum, residents said.
The RSF, which occupied much of the capital at the outbreak of fighting in mid-April, responded forcefully, resulting in heavy clashes in residential neighbourhoods and civilian casualties and displacement.
Neighbourhood activists in eastern Omdurman said at least nine civilians had been killed.
"The situation in Omdurman is terrifying," Nader Abdullah, a 52-year-old resident, told reporters by phone.
"Gunfire, the sound of artillery, and air strikes ... there's bombardment in every direction."
The war broke out four years after the overthrow of Omar Al Bashir during a popular uprising, as tensions between the army and the RSF, which jointly staged a coup in 2021, erupted over disagreements about a plan to transition to civilian rule.
Both sides have claimed military advances in recent days but there are no signs of a decisive breakthrough. Efforts led by Saudi Arabia and the United States to secure a ceasefire have stalled.
More than 4 million people have been displaced, according to the United Nations, including over 900,000 who have fled to neighbouring countries already grappling with conflict and economic crises.
The highest number - more than 377,000 - have fled to Chad from the western Sudanese region of Darfur, where witnesses have blamed Arab militias aligned with the RSF for a wave of ethnically targeted attacks against non-Arab groups.
People arriving in Chad from Mornay in West Darfur by foot, belongings piled onto horse-drawn carts or balanced on their heads, said they had been subject to rape, theft, and nighttime assaults and arrests.
"Whoever finds a way gets out, and whoever does not remains in suffering," said one refugee who gave his name as Haroun.
As a result of the conflict, hunger has been spreading and civilian casualties rising. With humanitarian funding and access limited, more than 300 deaths had been recorded between May 15 and July 17 due to measles and malnutrition, mainly among children under five, the UN refugee agency said.
"As many families have been on the move for weeks - with very little food or medicine - rising malnutrition rates, disease outbreaks and related deaths continue to be observed," UNHCR spokesman William Spindler told a briefing in Geneva.
The arrival of seasonal rains has caused displacement in some parts of Sudan and concerns that water-borne diseases will spread further.
On top of the fighting, residents in the capital have had to contend with extended power and water cuts, rampant looting by the RSF, the collapse of health services and shortages of food.
"Neither side is able to win outright and what we hear them say in the media is the opposite of what's happening on the ground," said Mohamed Usher, a 37-year-old living in southern Khartoum.
"What's left in Khartoum for them to win anyway? The institutions are destroyed, the universities, the markets are all destroyed."
The National Congress Party, under former president Omar Al Bashir, had ruled Sudan for 30 years since 1989.
They have been suffering from lack of food and medicine for weeks, leading to some of them losing two-thirds of their body weight.
"The UAE emphasised the importance of resuming talks among various Sudanese forces to realise the aspirations of the brotherly people of Sudan," said the statement.
Tensions between Arab and African tribes in Darfur date back to 2003, when ethnic minority rebels took up arms against the then Arab-dominated government of since-ousted president Omar Al Bashir, accusing it of marginalising the region economically and politically.
The design contains the COP28 logo, the Dubai symbol and multiple climate symbols, to be used to stamp the passports of passengers arriving through Dubai airports.
Some 104,000 people, including technical and security staff, have access this year to the "blue zone" dedicated to the actual climate negotiations and the pavilions of the states and organisations present.
This came during the COP28 Conference of the Parties, which was hosted by the UAE in Expo City Dubai, and its activities began on Thursday and will continue until December 12.