Footage showed passengers filing out of the plane and into the terminal, before a few dozen staff and officials posed for photographs in a brief ceremony on the tarmac.
"(The flight) was extremely smooth, comfortable and memorable. I think I'll remember this fondly for some time to come," a male passenger told CCTV.
The broadcaster had aired footage of the plane rising into the skies above Shanghai Hongqiao Airport on Sunday morning, saying it had 130 passengers on board.
A flight attendant distributes bottles of water during Shanghai to Beijing flight
State media footage showed passengers gathering at the sun-drenched Shanghai airfield to admire the sleek white jet before embarking.
Passengers received red boarding passes and a sumptuous "themed meal" to commemorate the flight, CCTV reported.
Other footage showed passengers waving national flags and singing a patriotic song while a cake was being cut during the flight.
China has invested heavily in production of the homegrown jet as it seeks to become self-sufficient in key technologies.
The aircraft is manufactured by state-owned Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China (COMAC), but many of its parts -- including its engines -- are sourced from overseas.
Zhang Xiaoguang, COMAC's director of marketing and sales, told state news agency Xinhua the flight was a "coming-of-age ceremony (for) the new aircraft", adding the C919 "will get better if it stands the test of the market".