A man makes a submarine sandwich with mortadella. File photo/AP
Cutting back on red meat is standard medical advice to prevent cancer and heart disease — but a review of dozens of studies has concluded that the potential risk is low and evidence uncertain.
In new guidelines published on Monday in the Annals of Internal Medicine, a panel of researchers from seven countries suggested that "adults continue current unprocessed red meat consumption."
The review, published in the journal edited by the American College of Physicians, analyzed multiple studies that, taken together, showed reducing red meat consumption by three servings per week could lower cancer mortality by seven deaths per 1,000 people.
Researchers said any such decline was modest and that they had found only a "low" degree of certainty about the statistic.
They added that the quality of evidence linking processed meat with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes was "very low."
"There are very small risk reductions in cancer, heart disease and diabetes, however the evidence is uncertain," Bradley Johnston, an epidemiology professor at Dalhousie University and director of the Nurtures group that put together the guidelines, said.
"So there may be a reduction — or there may not be.
"People need to make their own decisions. We are giving them the best estimate of the truth."
The researchers said they want to change the "old school" approach of giving general nutritional recommendations, and to bring more focus on evidence of individual benefit.
"People should look at this and hopefully make more well-informed personal choices, rather than being told what to do by authoritative organizations," Johnston said.
Eating less red meat and processed meat has been a cornerstone of dietary recommendations in many countries and from leading health groups for decades.
The World health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer says that processed meat is carcinogenic, while red meat is "probably carcinogenic."
In response to the latest guidelines, the World Cancer Research Fund said it would not change its advice.
Kevin McConway, emeritus professor of applied statistics at Britain's Open University, said the scientific evidence provided few clear answers.
"Depressingly, all this tends to indicate that after all these years and all these millions of research participants, we still don't know much," he said.
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Cancer has become the leading cause of death in rich nations, overtaking heart disease, according to the results of two landmark, decade-long global surveys of health trends released on Tuesday.
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