Rain covers are removed ahead of pitch inspection at Bristol County Ground on Friday. Reuters
The game was scheduled to begin at 10:30 (0930 GMT) but was eventually called off in the afternoon, with both teams being awarded a point.
It is the first match at the World Cup in England and Wales to be abandoned without a result.
Pakistan cricket fans hold the national flag as rain delays start of play at Bristol County Ground on Friday. AFP
Both teams now have three points, with one win and a loss apiece.
Pakistan lost to the West Indies by seven wickets at Trent Bridge before beating England by 14 runs at the same venue on Monday.
Sri Lanka crashed to a 10-wicket defeat against New Zealand before pulling off a 34-run win against Afghanistan in a rain-affected game.
The call-off upset fans who had travelled to watch the game.
"We came from Lahore to watch this match and it proved a damp squib," said Farhan Malik. "We lost a crucial point because we were sure of beating Sri Lanka."
Pakistan coach Mickey Arthur praised his team's resolve after a "shocking" defeat in their tournament opener.
Sri Lanka started the tournament as rank outsiders and finished sixth of the nine teams, registering one of their three wins against the world's top-ranked one-day international side and hosts England.
Sarfaraz Ahmed's side needed to smash the world record for margin of victory in a one-day international but, after winning the toss at Lord's, they failed to muster enough runs to give them a chance.
Bangladesh must be all out for seven or lower if Pakistan are to deny New Zealand a place in the semi-finals alongside Australia, India and England.
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